England Pre [ edit ] English Red Ensign as it appeared in the 17th century. In , a Royal Proclamation of King Charles II , reigned , confirmed that the Red Ensign was the appropriate flag to be worn by English merchant ships. The wording of the proclamation indicates that the flag was customarily being used by English merchantmen before that date. At this time, the ensign displayed the English Cross of St George in the canton. It is probable that the cross-saltire was adopted by the Scots as a national ensign at a very early period, but there seems no direct evidence of this before the fourteenth century. The earliest Scottish records were lost at sea in the ship that was sent to return them to that country, whence they had been carried off, with the ” Stone of Destiny “, by King Edward I , reigned The Scottish Ensign has been flown unofficially by many Scottish vessels for a number of years. Supporters cited the example of The States of Jersey , who in were permitted to use a “voluntary of informal” red ensign, adorned with a Plantagenet crown. An Order in Council of 21 July , established as naval flags of the royal standard, the Union flag and “the ensign directed by her Majesty since the said Union of the two Kingdoms”, which from the coloured drafts attached to the order is seen to be the red ensign.
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Print this page A powerful trading nation During the reign of Queen Victoria Britain emerged as the most powerful trading nation in the world, provoking a social and economic revolution whose effects are still being felt today. Since the latter part of the eighteenth century the process of industrialisation had built a firm foundation for nineteenth century growth and expansion.
At the heart of this was the successful development and application of steam technology. Before brilliant engineers and entrepreneurs such as James Watt and Matthew Boulton had made steam power a practical reality that had radically improved Britain’s core industries, namely the mining of coal, minerals and other raw materials and the production of iron, textiles and manufactured goods.
With its advanced industrial technologies Britain was able to attack a huge and rapidly expanding international market. At the start of Queen Victoria’s reign, Britain’s standing as a global industrial and trading power was already unrivalled.
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Don Horton The United States Merchant Marine has been largely viewed by the general population as large ships sailing across oceans and seas carrying exotic cargo from one country to another. Little information to what actually takes place within the service is known or understood by the public. There were three major components in that coalition, our fighting forces overseas, the civilian production machine here at home and, the link was the United States Merchant Marine.
Our Merchant Marine has proven itself time and again in every war we have encountered. History has consistently noted the brave seamen who crossed oceans carrying our troops and war materials in every war, and who often encountered enemy actions that sent many of those brave souls to the bottom of the seas.
Stories have been written about their heroic efforts to keep our shipping lanes open even while losing ships enemy hostilities here on our own shores during World War II. Early on during WW II, we were losing our ships faster than they could be built. The commanders of the German U-boats considered the waters off the east coast to be a shooting gallery because of our lack of security and adherence to keeping our shoreline dark.
The bright lights from the various amusement parks and residential areas along the coastal beaches provided the perfect backdrop for German U-boats to pick our ships off at will. We fought World War II on a global scale, with major fighting on three fronts. Logistics for this war in terms of supplies reached a scale never since matched.
This was the fifth time the waterfront suffered a fire, but this was intentional and destroyed 18 blocks and 2, buildings. Tuesday, October 24, “This was an extremely busy day for year-old Captain McLaughlin, master of the stately American medium clipper ship. It was sailing day.
As a Merchant Marine on the cusp of captain-hood, he’s at sea for 40 days at a time on ships including the MV Houston, then home for 40 days. “We really only see each other half of the year, but that causes us to make every single moment count when we’re both at home,” he said.
Additional Reference Materials or Resources I. Getting Started Individuals beginning a search of military records would be well served by first getting a general overview of the subject area. Additional research guidance is offered by the genealogy section of the National Archives and Records Administration web site. Consult as well other National Archives web pages including http: Individuals unfamiliar with the military may find particularly enlightening the Navy’s description of the contents of a service record.
Researching Military Service Records A.
11 Things You Might Not Know About the Marine Corps
Merchant seaman jobs span everything from sanitation to navigation, depending on where your interest and experience lie. While some merchant marine jobs require specific expertise, others can be learned on the job. What Is a Merchant Marine?
Established on December 19, , the Navy Unit Commendation Ribbon honors Navy and Marine Corps units that set themselves apart through feats of valor in combat or through exceptional service in non-combat circumstances.
Here are 11 things you might not know about the Marines. Anyone who stands still is a well-disciplined VC. That role, however, went to R. Lee Ermey, who had been hired for the film as a technical advisor. When director Stanley Kubrick saw the video, he recast Ermey for the role on the spot. The fictional Hartman became perhaps the most famous gunnery sergeant in the history of the Corps. Ermey retired as a Staff Sergeant, and in , the Marine Corps granted him an honorary promotion in accordance with the rank for which he is most associated.
Ermey—who passed away on April 15, —is the first retiree in the history of the Marines to receive such an honor. In , the Marines finished the job. The Battle of Derne, on the shores of Tripoli during the First Barbary War, was the decisive action of the war, and the first overseas land battle fought by the United States military. The item was worn to protect their necks when fighting with swords.
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Apr 06, · Best Answer: Got this off of the Merchant Marine web site: Every hour of every day, ships of all types ply the waters in and around our nation. They leave our ports laden with U.S. goods bound for foreign markets, or arrive in our harbors with merchandise and Status: Resolved.
Volume 40, Issues 1—2 , April , Pages The phosphorus cycle, phosphogenesis and marine phosphate-rich deposits Author links open overlay panel K. One of the most important aspects of the phosphorus cycle is its vital role in governing productivity, thereby interacting with the exogenic part of the carbon cycle, which, in turn, is important in regulating Earth’s climate.
Phosphorus is a prime element to be traced in Earth’s history, because it allows for the reconstruction of long-term feedback mechanisms between climate, environment and ecology, and of global change as such. Marine sedimentary phosphate deposits are particularly suited to study aspects of the phosphorus cycle, because, in the case of ubiquity, their origin may result from a general acceleration of the global phosphorus cycle.
Sources of sedimentary phosphate are microbial breakdown of buried organic matter and redox-driven phosphate desorption from iron and manganese oxyhydroxides. Dissolved sea-water phosphate represents an additional source which may become important in the formation of phosphatic hardgrounds. The main locus of phosphogenesis is near the sediment-water interface, but phosphogenesis also occurs at greater sediment depths.
Current-induced winnowing and transport processes along the sea floor concentrate phosphate precipitates into deposits, which exhibit internal stratification patterns typical for the prevailing hydraulic energy regime. In a sequence-stratigraphic context, phosphate deposits preferentially occur along marine or maximum flooding surfaces.
Consequent sedimentary reworking may result in the transfer of phosphates to highstand or lowstand deposits. Bio- chemical weathering on continents represents the most significant source of bioavailable phosphorus. This implies that long-term changes in marine phosphorus levels — and with these changes in marine ecology, productivity rates and ratios of exported carbonate carbon and organic carbon — are a response to changes in continental weathering rates.
Seven Days Ashore (1944)
Thank you all for coming today. From the first day we broke ground at the memorial, I have looked forward to its opening and its dedication. It is easy for us to forget the hard work and terrible sacrifices of the mariners and merchant seamen who went before us, but now we have a visible, permanent monument to the men and women who have given so much to their country by sailing aboard the vessels of our merchant marine.
They took the lead, handled the planning, the fundraising, and everything else it took to turn this Merchant Marine Memorial into a reality. We owe them all our thanks and they deserve a hand.
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These paintings were essentially landscapes in the guise of history paintings , with small figures usually representing a religious subject. A strong marine element was therefore present as landscape painting began to emerge as a distinct genre. The Protestant Reformation greatly restricted the uses of religious art, accelerating to the development of other secular types of art in Protestant countries, including landscape art and secular forms of history painting , which could both form part of marine art.
This adopts the low viewpoint typical of the ship portrait. A larger storm scene in Vienna , once regarded as his, is now attributed to Joos de Momper. The highly picturesque and historically useful Anthony Roll was a luxury illuminated manuscript inventory of the ships of the Royal Navy prepared for Henry VIII in the s. However it is neither very visually accurate nor artistically accomplished, having perhaps been illustrated by the official concerned. Most used Netherlandish artists, as did representations in prints of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in The Virgin of the Navigators is a Spanish work of the s with a group of ships at anchor, presumably in the New World , protected by the Virgin.